Vaccination regimes against Infectious bronchitis virus, which are based on a single virus serotype, 22 often induce insufficient levels of cross -protection against serotypes and two or more antigenically 23 diverse vaccines are used in attempt to provide broader protection. Amino acid differences in the 24 surface protein, spike (S), in particular the S1 subunit, are associated with poor cross -protection . 25 Here, homologous vaccination trials with recombinant IBVs, based on the apathogenic strain, 26 BeauR, were conducted to elucidate the role of S1 in protection. A single vaccination of SPF - 27 chickens with rIBV expressing S1 of virulent strains M41 or QX, BeauR -M41(S1) and BeauR - 28 QX(S1), gave incomplete protection against homologous challenge, based on ciliary activity and 29 clinical signs . There could be conformational issues with the spike if heterologous S1 and S2 are 30 linked, suggesting a homologous S2 might be essential. To address this, a homologous 31 vaccination -challenge trial incorporating rIBVs expressing full spike from M41, BeauR -M41(S), 32 and S2 subunit from M41, BeauR -M41(S2) was conducted . All chimaeric viruses grew to similar 33 titres in vitro, induced virus -specific partial protective immunity, evident by cellular infiltrations, 34 reductions in viral RNA load in the trachea and conjunctiva and higher serum anti -IBV titres . 35 Collectively, these show that vaccination with rIBVs primed the birds for challenge but the viruses 36 were cleared rapidly from the mucosal tissues in the head. Chimaeric S1 and S2 viruses did not 37 protect as effectively as BeauR -M41(S) based on ciliary activity and clinical signs . Booster 38 vaccinations and a rIBV with improved in vivo replication may improve the levels of protection.