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Enhancing the toolbox to study IL-17A in cattle and sheep

The development of methods to detect cytokine expression by T cell subsets in ruminants is fundamental to strategic development of new livestock vaccines for prevention of infectious diseases. It has been possible to detect T cell expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in ruminants for many years but methods to detect expression of IL-17A are relatively limited. To address this gap in capability we have cloned bovine and ovine IL-17A cDNAs and expressed biologically-active recombinant proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells.

Vaccination for One Health

This editorial, written by Dr. Michael Francis from BioVacc Consulting Ltd, discusses the impact that vaccination has on the One Heath agenda. It explores the relationship between humans and animals, and their environment. It also highlights the risk posed by zoonotic diseases and the role that vaccination has to play in their control. Furthermore, the sharing of vaccine technologies between human and veterinary medicine are discussed. 

International One Heath Day is on November 3rd 2017.

The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus)

The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Characterization of the loci encoding the goat immune repertoire would be highly beneficial for both vaccine and immune reagent development.

Immune response profiles of calves following vaccination with live BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine candidates

Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes.

A glycerophospholipid-specific pocket in the RVFV class II fusion protein drives target membrane insertion

The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted by infected mosquitoes, causing severe disease in humans and livestock across Africa. We determined the x-ray structure of the RVFV class II fusion protein Gc in its postfusion form and in complex with a glycerophospholipid (GPL) bound in a conserved cavity next to the fusion loop.

Vaccination with recombinant adenovirus expressing peste des petits ruminants virus-F or -H proteins elicits T cell responses to epitopes that arises during PPRV infection

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease that limits productivity in small domestic ruminants and often affects the livestock of the poorest populations in developing countries. Animals that survive PPRV develop strong cellular and humoral responses, which are probably necessary for protection. Vaccination should thus aim at mimicking these natural responses.

African and classical swine fever: similarities, differences and epidemiological consequences

For the global pig industry, classical (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks are a constantly feared threat. Except for Sardinia, ASF was eradicated in Europe in the late 1990s, which led to a research focus on CSF because this disease continued to be present. However, ASF remerged in eastern Europe in 2007 and the interest in the disease, its control and epidemiology increased tremendously. The similar names and the same susceptible species suggest a similarity of the two viral diseases, a related biological behaviour and, correspondingly, similar epidemiological features.

Recent Advances in Vaccine Technologies

Most vaccines that are available today rely on either inactivated (killed) or live attenuated (weakened) technologies. Such approaches have been successfully used to address many of the important veterinary and human diseases. However, both techniques have their limitations and associated potential problems.

Identification of Novel Antigens Recognized by Serum Antibodies in Bovine Tuberculosis

Bovine tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains an important zoonotic disease posing a serious threat to livestock and wildlife. The current TB tests relying on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in cattle have performance limitations. To identify new serodiagnostic markers of bovine TB, we screened a panel of 101 recombinant proteins, including 10 polyepitope fusions, by a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) with well-characterized serum samples serially collected from cattle with experimental or naturally acquired M. bovis infection.

Developing vaccination strategies for Rift Valley fever in East Africa

Report of a stakeholder workshop held in Naivasha, Kenya on 4–5 October 2017 on 'Developing vaccination strategies for Rift Valley fever in East Africa'.

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