Dr. Aref graduated from faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Assiut University-Egypt in 1994. He obtained his master degree in Internal Veterinary Medicine in 1998 from the same faculty with special emphasis on neonatal calf diarrhea, acid-base balance and rehydration therapy. His Ph.D. in Large Animal Clinical Sciences at Michigan State University, USA in 2008 focused on construction of highly immunogenic heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) of entero-toxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. A patent out of his Ph.D. work has been issued in USA, 2014. He has several articles published in International and local journals. He serves as a reviewer and on the Editorial Board of several international journals. Aref's scholarly work is geared towards enterotoxin-mediated diarrheal diseases and development of ST-based ETEC vaccine using nanotechnology. Dr. Aref is currently holding a position of Professor of Veterinary Internal Medicine at Assiut University-Egypt.