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Metazoan Parasite Vaccines: Present Status and Future Prospects

Eukaryotic parasites and pathogens continue to cause some of the most detrimental and difficult to treat diseases (or disease states) in both humans and animals, while also continuously expanding into non-endemic countries. Combined with the ever growing number of reports on drug-resistance and the lack of effective treatment programs for many metazoan diseases, the impact that these organisms will have on quality of life remain a global challenge. Vaccination as an effective prophylactic treatment has been demonstrated for well over 200 years for bacterial and viral diseases.

Correlates of protective immunity for fish vaccines

Vaccination is one of the most effective disease control strategies that has contributed to the significant reduction of disease outbreaks and antibiotics usage in salmonid aquaculture. To date, licensing of fish vaccines is to a limited extent based on in vitro correlates of protection, as done for many mammalian vaccines. This is because the immunological mechanisms of vaccine protection have not been clearly elucidated for most fish vaccines.

The History of In Vivo Tuberculin Testing in Bovines: Tuberculosis, a “One Health” Issue

Tuberculosis (TB) is more than 3 million years old thriving in multiple species. Ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis gave rise to multiple strains including Mycobacterium bovis now distributed worldwide with zoonotic transmission happening in both directions between animals and humans. M. bovis in milk caused problems with a significant number of deaths in children under 5 years of age due largely to extrapulmonary TB. This risk was effectively mitigated with widespread milk pasteurization during the twentieth century, and fewer young children were lost to TB.

Map Existing Initiatives in STAR-IDAZ IRC Working Group Fields

This document is produced by the Secretariat of the STAR-IDAZ International Research Consortium on Animal Health (SIRCAH) for the task: T3.3.2 - Map existing initiatives in Working Group (WG) fields with input from IRC members and stakeholders. The aim is to gather and compile the documents produced by IRC members, research consortia, learned societies and other relevant stakeholders relating to existing initiatives in the fields of the WGs. The lists will be fed into the working groups and disseminated publicly via the STAR-IDAZ databases.

 

 

 

Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective.

BACKGROUND:

Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Targeting a global health problem: Vaccine design and challenges for the control of tick-borne diseases

It has been over twenty years since the first vaccines for the control of tick infestations became commercially available. These vaccines proved their efficacy and the potential of this approach for the control of tick-borne diseases (TBDs), which represent a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. In all these years, research in this area has produced new tick-derived and pathogen-derived candidate protective antigens.

A thermostable presentation of the live, attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine in use in Africa and Asia

The research objective was to develop a thermostable vaccine against peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a morbilliviral disease of small ruminants targeted for eradication that is a major constraint on the livelihoods of the rural poor throughout much of Africa and Asia. Although existing PPR vaccines provide life-long immunity, they require continuous refrigeration. This limits their utility in developing countries.

Approaches to vaccination against Theileria parva and Theileria annulata

Despite having different cell tropism, the pathogenesis and immunobiology of the diseases caused by Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are remarkably similar. Live vaccines have been available for both parasites for over 40 years, but although they provide strong protection, practical disadvantages have limited their widespread application. Efforts to develop alternative vaccines using defined parasite antigens have focused on the sporozoite and intracellular schizont stages of the parasites.

Prospects for vaccination against pathogenic African trypanosomes

African trypanosomes cause human and animal African trypanosomiases, which are chronic, debilitating and often fatal diseases of people and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The extracellular protozoan parasites are exemplars of antigenic variation. They direct host-protective B-cell and T-cell immune responses towards hypervariable components of their variable surface glycoprotein coat and evade immune elimination by generating new surface coat antigenic variants at a rate that supersedes immune destruction.

Progress in the development of subunit vaccines for gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants

The global increase in anthelmintic resistant nematodes of ruminants, together with consumer concerns about chemicals in food, necessitates the development of alternative methods of control for these pathogens. Subunit recombinant vaccines are ideally placed to fill this gap. Indeed, they are probably the only valid option for the long-term control of ruminant parasitic nematodes given the increasing ubiquity of multidrug resistance in a range of worm species across the world.

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