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Operational framework for strengthening human, animal and environmental public health systems at their interface

Public health systems have critical and clear relevance to the World Bank’s twin goals of poverty eradication and boosting shared prosperity. In particular, they are impacted by, and must respond to,significant threats at human-animal-environment interface. Most obvious are the diseases shared between humans and animals (“zoonotic” diseases), which comprise more than 60 percent of known human infectious pathogens; but also aspects of vector-borne disease, food and water safety and security, and antimicrobial resistance.

Tackling human and animal health threats through innovative vaccinology in Africa

Africa bears the brunt of many of the world’s most devastating human and animal infectious diseases, a good number of which have no licensed or effective vaccines available. The continent’s potential to generate novel interventions against these global health threats is however largely untapped. Strengthening Africa’s vaccine research and development (R&D) sector could accelerate discovery, development and deployment of effective countermeasures against locally prevalent infectious diseases, many of which are neglected and have the capacity to spread to new geographical settings.

Sustainable vaccine development: a vaccine manufacturer's perspective

Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing.

Engineering a Rugged Nanoscaffold To Enhance Plug-and-Display Vaccination

Nanoscale organization is crucial to stimulating an immune response. Using self-assembling proteins as multimerization platforms provides a safe and immunogenic system to vaccinate against otherwise weakly immunogenic antigens. Such multimerization platforms are generally based on icosahedral viruses and have led to vaccines given to millions of people. It is unclear whether synthetic protein nanoassemblies would show similar potency.

Vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics for food producing animals. Part 1: challenges and needs

Vaccines and other alternative products can help minimize the need for antibiotics by preventing and controlling infectious diseases in animal populations, and are central to the future success of animal agriculture. To assess scientific advancements related to alternatives to antibiotics and provide actionable strategies to support their development, the United States Department of Agriculture, with support from the World Organisation for Animal Health, organized the second International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics.

Vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics for food producing animals. Part 2: new approaches and potential solutions

Vaccines and other alternative products are central to the future success of animal agriculture because they can help minimize the need for antibiotics by preventing and controlling infectious diseases in animal populations. To assess scientific advancements related to alternatives to antibiotics and provide actionable strategies to support their development, the United States Department of Agriculture, with support from the World Organisation for Animal Health, organized the second International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics.

Serological responses of cattle inoculated with inactivated trivalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine at the wildlife-livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is economically one of the world’s most important animal pathogens, which can be responsible for losses in livestock trade, as well as frequent and highly disruptive large-scale epidemics. The control of FMD in southern Africa typically includes vaccination of cattle with a trivalent or bivalent vaccine preparation. The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of the antibody responses conferred by the current FMD vaccination programme in cattle at the western boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa.

Characterization of the Myeloid Cell Populations’ Resident in the Porcine Palatine Tonsil

The palatine tonsil is the portal of entry for food and air and is continuously subjected to environmental challenges, including pathogens, which use the tonsil and pharynx as a primary site of replication. In pigs, this includes the viruses causing porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome, and classical and African swine fever; diseases that have impacted the pig production industry globally. Despite the importance of tonsils in host defense, little is known regarding the phenotype of the myeloid cells resident in the porcine tonsil.

Do vaccination interventions have effects? A study on how poultry vaccination interventions change smallholder farmer knowledge, attitudes, and practice in villages in Kenya and Tanzania

Poultry are important for many poor households in developing countries, but there are many constraints to poultry production, including disease. One of the most important diseases of chickens is Newcastle disease (ND). Even though there are effective vaccines against this disease available in most countries, uptake by small-scale poultry keepers is often low. In this study, two areas in Kenya and Tanzania were studied, where some villages had received additional support to get vaccination and other villages had not.

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